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Septum Deviasyonu

Deviation of the Septum

Deviation of the septum The nose is the basic structure that is the starting point of the respiratory tract and ensures that breathing, which is one of the most vital functions of the body system, is performed in a healthy way. 

Located at the exact focal point of the face, all of the bone and cartilage structures that act as a wall between the two wall openings of the nose and form the middle line of the nose are called the “nasal Decapitation”. If the nasal septum has a curvature of any nature or is not positioned correctly, healthy breathing cannot be performed. The breathing process has an important and vital place for the health of the whole body. Therefore, breathing problems that occur in cases of nasal septum deviation do not only cause complaints about breathing, they cause harmful effects on the health of the whole body and negatively affect the lives of people. 

What is a Septum Deviation?

Due to the anatomical structure of the nose, the middle line of the nose, called the nasal septum, should be positioned in a certain way so that the breathing function can be performed in a healthy and correct way. However, due to reasons such as genetics or subsequent traumas, the nasal septum, which is composed of cartilage and bone structure forming the middle line of the nose, may not be positioned correctly or may be curved. A condition in which the bone and cartilage tissue formed by the nasal septum in a trapezoidal shape in the middle line of the nose makes it difficult for a person to breathe through the nose is called septum deviation. 

Septum deviation is a condition in which the bone and cartilage structure in the nose does not settle correctly or it becomes difficult to breathe due to its curvature, and in some cases even breathing becomes impossible with the complete closure of the nostrils. 

Septum Deviation, physical traumas that are usually suffered (impact, fall, etc.) occurs due to, and in some cases, it may occur during the process in the womb or for genetic reasons.

What Causes Septum Deviation?

The middle wall of the nose, along with other structures in the nose, begins to develop from the womb, and cartilage-bone development in the nose lasts until the age of 18. As long as the development of nasal cartilage is completed, blows received to this area, traumas caused by blows or existing problems related to the anatomical structure of the nose at birth can cause septum deviation.

If we list these reasons, then;

  • The presence of a nasal arch by inheritance
  • Asymmetry that is inherited in the nose or nostrils
  • Slipping in the bone as a result of blows to the nose area, and disorders in the form of a nose occur due to traumas

What Problems Arise?

Nasal congestion, which is also the most obvious symptom of septum deviation, causes difficulty breathing. In some people with mild septum deviation, the symptoms appear during colds.

We can list the health problems caused by septum deviation as follows;

  • Nasal blockages that occur on one or two sides
  • Snoring or apnea
  • Obstruction in the Eustachian tube
  • Accumulation of fluid in the ear
  • Nasal discharge
  • Headache
  • Recurrent nosebleeds
  • Recurrent or long-lasting diseases of pharyngitis, sinusitis, bronchitis

How is Septum Deviation Diagnosed?

Nasal breathing can be determined objectively by performing rhinomanometric measurements, and the volume and stenosis of all nasal passages can be determined by acoustic rhinometry. 

Diagnosis of septum deviation, on the other hand, can be performed by detailed endoscopic examination of the nasal region. 

How is Septum Deviation Treated?

The curvature of the nasal septum, which should be thin and straight due to its normal structure, can make breathing difficult or impossible. In the event that the curvature of the septum is curved or incorrectly positioned, which will cause nasal congestion, surgical intervention is performed. Operations in which the curvature of cartilage and bone tissue in the middle line of the nose is corrected are called septoplasty.

When Is Surgery Necessary?

The nose is the area located at the exact midpoint of the face and forms the focal point. The nose, called the septumnasale in medical language, is like a tunnel divided in half. If these two tunnels are close to each other in width and length, we can talk about nasal health. These two parts, which are separated into two by the middle wall of the nose, are covered with a thin and membranous layer. There is cartilage in the back, front and upper parts of this layer, and a bone wall in the lower back parts.

A healthy nose begins to expand from the posterior part of the stenosis in the anterior entrance hole. Exactly at this point, if there are any problems in the nasal tunnel from the entrance to the exit, there are problems related to breathing, which is our basic life function. The most common cause of this condition, which causes air passage to be blocked through the nasal tunnel, is the protrusion and bump formed by the middle wall of the nose. This protrusion and bump occur in the structure called the septum, which consists of cartilage and bone that divides the nasal cavity into two.

The purpose of the septum is to divide the nasal cavity into two equal structures and to ensure that the breathing process is carried out systematically through these two air channels. The curvatures that occur in this systematic and functional structure of the septum for various reasons are called septum deviation. In septum deviation, a blockage condition occurs as a result of the middle wall of the nose shifting from the middle line. Septum deviation is also known as nasal bone curvature.

Septum deviation causes disruption of the balance of the air spaces that perform systematic and alternating functions in the nose, and therefore various problems related to breathing.

Septum Deviation Surgery 

Bone and cartilage tissues, which are observed to be crooked or in the wrong position for various reasons, are regulated by septoplasty surgery. Basically, during septoplasty surgery, bone tissues that prevent breathing or make breathing difficult in the nose are removed, and existing cartilage tissues are rearranged and positioned accordingly. 

In septum deviation surgery, a small incision is usually made under the nose to reach the intranasal tissues. With the septum deviation procedure, the part of the septum that causes obstruction in the nose can be removed or this part can be corrected and positioned correctly. No method applied during septum deviation surgery affects the external appearance of the nose. 

In cases where the curvature of the nose is not only related to internal structures, but also there is a bone curvature from the outside, an operation called ‘open technique’, which is performed by stripping the skin of the nose, can be performed. 

After the septum deviation, the incision is closed through sutures. Stitches may need to be removed 1 week after septum deviation, where self-dissolving stitches can be used.

In What Cases Is Surgery Required?

Septum deviation is observed on average at a rate close to 70-80% of the society. A mild type of septaldeviation found in a person may not be noticed because it will not affect the person's life very much. However, if the septum deviation is advanced or present in several regions (for example, S-shaped deviation), it can affect a person's normal life and cause serious health problems along with respiratory problems.

Loss of comfort and effort; people with septum deviation breathe through the mouth, especially during night sleep, and consequently experience dry mouth. This condition actually means that the basic function of the nose, which is to purify the air and balance it according to body temperature, cannot be performed. Therefore, the air taken through the mouth goes to the lungs, which causes the lungs to exert more effort for breathing.

Loss of performance and health problems; breathing is the main function for taking oxygen in the body, which ensures the healthy functioning of the entire system. Healthy breathing constitutes the fundamental point for the functioning of a healthy body system. In this direction, septum deviation may show symptoms such as a general state of fatigue and ongoing headaches in a person. The general state of fatigue and ongoing headaches make a person's performance loss inevitable.

What Should Be Considered After Surgery?

  • Care should be taken against bumps that may come to the nose in order to avoid any trauma to the nose after surgery. 
  • Care should be taken not to blow for the first week. Light blowing can be started 1 week after the operation. 
  • Care should be taken not to hold the sneeze and sneeze with the mouth open. 
  • The feeling of bloating and fullness in the nose decreases within a few weeks after surgery. 
  • Depending on the healing of the surgical site, crusting may occur in the nose, this condition may last for 3-6 weeks. 
  • In order to reduce swelling and fullness, instead of lying flat, it may be useful to sleep in positions where the head is held 30 degrees above the heart level. 
  • It is beneficial not to take a shower with too hot water and to stay away from exercises such as running and swimming for a while.